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APA Citations (6th ed.): Parenthetical Documentation

This citation guide will help you learn how to format and cite your paper in APA style.

Direct quotes from an article with page numbers

As Smith (2005) noted, “…results in several studies” (p. 5)


OR “Several studies showed results suggesting …” (Smith, 2005, p. 5).


Note:   When paraphrasing it is optional to identify the location of the information from within the source. You must, however, identify the source for the information.

Remember:  Quotation marks "" are required unless you are paraphrasing or the quotation is 40 words or longer.

Direct quotes from an article found in a database without page numbers

As Smith (2005) noted: “…results in several studies” (para. 5)


OR  “Several studies showed results suggesting …” (Smith, 2005, para. 5).


With a direct quotation longer than 40 words

 Wolpert (1998) made the following observation:

One emerging threat to libraries’ brand identity is the visibility and credit for the services and products they provide to distance learners.   Where the physical library world provides constant reinforcement to the relationship between the library and the material and information a patron needs, the virtual library permits a patron to bookmark a site within the library’s electronic connections and never again be reminded of how that product or service is made possible. (p. 21)

Without an author from a Web site

If a source does not have an author, cite the source by a shortened form of the title (such as using the first word or two). Title of books and reports should be italicized. Titles of articles, chapters, and web pages should be in quotation marks:


Several conclusions can be drawn … (“Information literacy,” 2000, Conclusion section, para. 2). 

Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year

If you have two or more sources by the same author in the same year, use lower-case letters (a,b,c, etc.) with the year to order the entries in the reference list. Then use the lower-case letters with the year in the in-text citation:


Research by Brandt (1981a) illustrated that...