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APA Citations (6th ed.): Online Article from a Database

This citation guide will help you learn how to format and cite your paper in APA style.

DOI = Digital Object Identifier

What is a DOI?


A DOI is a digital object identifier – a unique alphanumeric code that gives a persistent link to the web location for an electronic item. DOIs are commonly seen on current electronic journal articles, but are also often included in the print version of the article.



  • Use a DOI (if assigned to the article) in citing articles whether accessed in the print or electronic form.
  • If you cannot locate a DOI, then use the JOURNAL homepage URL (e.g. Retrieved from

How do I find the DOI for an article?


1. Check the first page of the article for a DOI.

2. DOIs are often included in database records. If you're searching a library database like Academic Search Premier, and if a DOI is assigned to an article, you will find it in the database record for that article.

3. Check for the doi

4. DOIs may also be found in the bibliography of an article. If you find a DOI in a bibliography and want to find the actual article (or further citation information), you need to use a DOI resolver (see: ).

Online Article from a database, WITH DOI ASSIGNED

Reference List
Herbst-Damm, K.L., & Kulik, J.A. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status, and the
     survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 2, 225-229.
     doi: 10.1037/0278-6133.24.2.225
Citations in Text (Direct Quote) (Herbst-Damm & Kulik, 2005, p. 228)
Citations in Text (Paraphrase) (Herbst-Damm & Kulik, 2005)


NOTE: If each issue of a journal begins on page 1, include the issue number in parentheses immediately after the volume number. Often, when a DOI is available, each issue of a journal does not begin on page 1, meaning the issue number is not needed.

Online Article from a database, WITH NO DOI ASSIGNED

Reference List
Christofides, T.C. (2010). Comments on a method of comparison of randomized
     response techniques. Journal of Statistical Planning & Inference, 140(10), 
     574-575.  Retrieved from

Note: It has no DOI, so the journal homepage needs to be given if you can find it.  When a document  is not easily located through its primary publishing channels, give the home or entry page URL for the online archive (i.e. Retrieved from

Citations in Text (Direct Quote) (Christofides, 2010, p. 574)
Citations in Text (Paraphrase) (Christofides, 2010)


NOTE: If each issue of a journal begins on page 1, include the issue number in parentheses immediately after the volume number. Often, when a DOI is not available, each issue of a journal begins on page 1, meaning the issue number is needed.

Chapter in an Electronic Book/E-book

Reference List
Shah, P. K., & Chyu, K-Y. (2003). Unstable angina. In M. H. Crawford (Ed.), 

     Current diagnosis & treatment (2nd ed., Chapter 4). New York: 

     McGraw-Hill. Retrieved from
Citations in Text (Direct Quote) (Shah & Chyu, 2003, General Considerations section, para C)
Citations in Text (Paraphrase) (Shah & Chyu, 2003)

Abstract as Original Source

Reference List
Rinker, A. G. (2009). Recognition and perception of elder abuse by prehospital and 

     hospital-based care providers [Abstract]. Archives of Gerontology and 

     Geriatrics, 48(1), 110-115. Abstract retrieved from
Citations in Text (Direct Quote) (Rinker, 2009, Abstract line 6)
Citations in Text (Paraphrase) (Rinker, 2009)


Reference List
Adams, R.J. (1973).  Building a foundation for evaluation of instruction in higher
     education and continuing education (Doctoral dissertation). Available from
     Proquest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 1434728)
Note: The (UMI No. 1434728) above refers to the Accession or Order No.
Citations in Text (Direct Quote) (Adams, 1973, p. 34)
Citations in Text (Paraphrase) (Adams, 1973)

Citing Statistics from Statista

Reference List
Statista Survey. (2017). Why have you not (yet) had a piercing done?      ​
           Statista - The Statistics Portal. Retrieved from 
Citations in Text (Direct Quote)
(Statista Survey, 2017, para. 2)
Citations in Text (Paraphrase)
(Statista Survey, 2017)

NOTE: Use the "cite" button and then correct the information provided. Click on "source" to find the author and release date information.​

Citing a Dossier or Report from Statista

Reference List
Mälkki, T., & Staffa, V. (2018). Manufacturing: Beverages in the U.S. 2018.
           (Statista Industry Report - NAICS Code 3121). Retrieved from 
Citations in Text (Direct Quote)
(Mälkki & Staffa, 2018, p. 11)
Citations in Text (Paraphrase)
(Mälkki & Staffa, 2018)

NOTE: In most cases, a dossier or report is just a collection of multiple statistics on a single topic. If you are only using one or two of these statistics, just cite the original statistic instead of the whole dossier or report.

If the dossier or report provides unique information rather than a collection of statistics, then cite the whole dossier or report.

**You may need to download the report or view the whole document to find the authors.