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APA Citations (6th ed.): Email, Interview, Lecture, Notes

This citation guide will help you learn how to format and cite your paper in APA style.

Emails, Interviews, and other Personal Communications

Reference List Note: Only include as an “in-text” citation, not in your Reference List.
Citations in Text (Direct Quote) He stated that, “ … “ (G. Whyte, personal communication, November 30, 2009). OR G. Whyte (personal communication, November 30, 2009) stated that “ … “
Citations in Text (Paraphrase) … (G. Whyte, personal communication, November 30, 2009) OR G. Whyte (personal communication, November 30, 2009) stated that …

Online Lecture Notes & Presentation Slides

Reference List
Zornetzer, S. (2008). Sustainability base: Window to the future on Earth [PowerPoint slides]. 

     Retrieved from http://www.nasa.gov/pdf/399925main_09-10_Sustainability_Base.pdf
Citations in Text (Direct Quote) (Zornetzer, 2008, p. 5)
Citations in Text (Paraphrase) (Zornetzer, 2008)

Class Handouts

Reference List
Pedersen, C. (2011, Spring). Sexual deviance [LESD 101 class handout]. New
     Westminster, BC: Justice Institute of British Columbia.
Note: APA does not give specific advice about citing these materials. We suggest the above format.
Citations in Text (Direct Quote) "..." (Pedersen, 2011)
Citations in Text (Paraphrase) ... (Pedersen, 2011)

Class Notes

Reference List Note: Only include as an "in-text" citation, not in your Reference List.
Citations in Text (Direct Quote) "..." (R. James, LESD 100 personal lecture notes, July 12, 2010). 
Citations in Text (Paraphrase) ... (R. James, LESD 100 personal lecture notes, July 12, 2010).