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APA Citations (7th ed.): Audiovisual Works

This guide will help you learn how to properly cite sources in APA style and how to avoid plagiarism.

Audiovisual Media

Audiovisual media may have:

  • Both visual and audio components (e.g., films, TV shows, YouTube videos)
  • Audio components only (e.g., music, speech recordings)
  • Visual components only (e.g., artwork, PowerPoint slides, photographs)

Describe the audiovisual work in square brackets--for example, "[Film]," "[TV series]," "[Audio podcast episode]," "[Song]," "[Painting]," and so forth in the title element of the reference.

In the source element, provide the name of the production company for films, TV series, or podcasts; or the name of the streaming video site that hosts a streaming video.

If you want to reproduce an audiovisual work rather than just cite it, you may need to seek permission from the copyright owner.

Audiovisual Authors

Authors of audiovisual works are determined by media type:

Audiovisual Template - Standalone

Audiovisual Template - Part of a Greater Whole

Film or Video

  • The director should be credited as the author of a film. However, if the director is unknown, someone in a similar role can be credited instead to aid reader in retrieving the work; the description of role in this case matches what is on the work and is flexible.
  • It is not necessary to specify how you watched a film. However, the format or other descriptive information may be included--within square brackets, following the word "Film" and a semi-colon--when you need to specify the version used (e.g., when there is special commentary version).

Fosha, D. (Guest Expert), & Leveonson, H. (Host). (2017). Accelerated experiential dynamic psychotherapy (AEDP) supervision [Film; educational DVD]. American Psychological Assocation.

Jackson, P. (Director). (2001). The lord of the rings: The fellowship of the ring [Film; four-disc special extended ed. on DVD]. Wingnut Films; The Saul Zaentz Company.

Kubrick, S. (Director). (1964). Dr. Strangelove, or, how I learned to stop worrying and love the bomb [Film]. Columbia Pictures.

Parenthetical citations: (Fosha & Levenson, 2017; Jackson, 2001; Kubrick, 1964)

Narrative citations: Fosha & Levenson (2017), Jackson (2001), and Kubrick (1964)

Film or Video in Another Language

  • When a film title is in a different language than your paper, include a translation of the title in square brackets.

Haneke, M. (Director). (2012). Amour [Love] [Film]. Les Films du Losange.

Parenthetical citation: (Haneke, 2012)

Narrative citation: Haneke (2012)

TV Series

  • When the series spans multiple years, separate the years with an en dash. If the series is still airing, replace the second year with the word "present": (2015–present).

Miller, B. (Executive producer). (2017–present). The handmaid's tale [TV series]. MGM Television; Hulu.

Parenthetical citation: (Miller, 2017–present)

Narrative citation: Miller (2017–present)

TV Series Episode or Webisode

  • Include writer(s) and the director for the episode. Include the contributor roles in parentheses after each contributor's name. "Writer" and "Director" are shown in the example, but "Executive Director" or other role descriptions might also be used.
  • Provide the season number and episode number after the title in parentheses.

Fresco, V. (Creator), Mann, B. (Writer), Sielaff, A. (Writer), & Spiller, M. (Director). (2009, April 22). Goodbye, Mr. Chips (Season 1, Episode 6) [TV series episode]. In V. Fresco (Executive Producer), Better off Ted. Garfield Grove Productions; 20th Century Fox Television.

Khan, N. (Creator), Huang, E. (Original Book Author), Shah, S. (Writer), Wang, S. (Executive Story Editor), Caldwell, A. (Staff Writer), Fang, C. (Staff Writer), Kirby, J. (Staff Writer), Veles, J. (Staff Writer), & Statman, A. (Director). (2017, October 24). It's a Plastic Pumpking, Louis Huang (Season 4, Episode 4) [TV series episode]. In N. Khan (Creator), Fresh off the boat. Fierce Baby Productions; The Detective Agency; 20th Century Fox Television.

Parenthetical citations: (Fresco et al., 2009; Khan et al., 2017)

Narrative citations: Fresco et al. (2009) and Khan et al. (2017)

TED Talk

  • When the TED Talk comes from TED's website, use hte name of the speaker as the author. When the TED Talk is on YouTube, list the owner of the YouTube account as the author to aid in retrieval.
  • When the speaker is not listed as the author, integrate their name into the narrative if desired.

Husted, L. (2019, November). Game theory challenge: Can you predict human behavior? [Video]. TED Conferences.

TED. (2019, November 21). The price of a "clean" internet | Hans Block and Moritz Riesewieck [Video]. YouTube.

Parenthetical citation: (Husted, 2019; TED, 2019)

Narrative citation: Husted (2019) and TED (2019)

Webinar, Recorded

  • Use this format only for recorded, retrievable webinars.
  • Cite unrecorded webinars as personal communications.

Goldberg, J. F. (2018). Evaluating adverse drug effects [Webinar]. American Psychiatric Association.

Parenthetical citation: (Goldberg, 2018)

Narrative citation: Goldberg (2018)

YouTube Video or Other Streaming Video

  • The person or group who uploaded the video is credited as the author for retrievability, even if they did not create the work. Note the contributions of others who appear in the video in the text narrative if desired.
  • If the author has a username, include it after the real name of the individual in square brackets.

Cutts, S. (2017, November 24). Happiness [Video]. Vimeo.

Varshavski, M. [Doctor Mike]. (2018, July 1). My thoughts on vaping + ASMR | Responding to your comments | Doctor Mike [Video]. YouTube.

Wired. (2018, February 20). Neuroscientist Anil Seth answers neuroscience questions from Twitter [Video]. YouTube.

Parenthetical citations: (Cutts, 2017; Varshavski, 2018; Wired, 2018)

Narrative citations: Cutts (2017), Varshavski (2018), and Wired (2018)