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APA Citations (7th ed.): Books and Reference Works

This guide will help you learn how to properly cite sources in APA style and how to avoid plagiarism.

Books & Reference Works

The books category includes:

  • Authored books
  • Edited books
  • Anthologies
  • Religious works
  • Classical works

The reference work category includes dictionaries, encyclopedias, and diagnostic manuals.

For a chapter in an authored book, create a reference for the whole book and provide the chapter number within the in-text citation only.

Not all examples are represented here. Please see pp. 321-325 of the manual for more examples.

Books & Reference Works Template

Authored Book with and without DOI

  • Always include a DOI when one is available.
  • If there is no DOI and the book has a nondatabase URL, include the URL in place of the DOI.
  • If you do not have a DOI or URL, end the reference entry after the publication information.

Goldman, A. I. (2018). Philosophical applications of cognitive science. Routledge.

Kirchler, E., & Hoelzl, E. (2017). Economic psychology. Cambridge University Press.

Parenthetical citations: (Goldman, 2018; Kirchler & Hoelzl, 2017)

Narrative citations: Goldman (2018) and Kirchler and Hoelzl (2017)

Authored Ebook or Audiobook without a DOI

  • For audiobooks, include the narrator and audiobook notation if the content is different than other formats, if you want to note something special about the audiobook (e.g., the impact of narration on the listener), or if you quote form the audiobook.

Cain, S. (2012). Quiet: The power of introverts in a world that can't stop talking (K. Mazur, Narr.) [Audiobook]. Random House Audio.

Christian, B., & Griffiths, T. (2016). Algorithms to live by: The computer science of human decisions. Henry Holt and Co.

Parenthetical citations: (Cain, 2012; Christian & Griffiths, 2016)

Narrative citations: Cain (2012) and Christian and Griffiths (2016)

Authored Book with Editor Credited on Book Cover

  • When an editor is credited on the cover of an authored book, provide the editor's name in parentheses after the book title, followed by a comma and then "Ed." or "Eds." within parentheses as well.

Meadows, D. H. (2008). Thinking in systems: A primer (D. Wright, Ed.). Chelsea Green Publishing.

Parenthetical citation: (Meadows, 2008)

Narrative citation: Meadows (2008)

Edited Book with and without a DOI

  • When a book has multiple publishers, separate the publisher names using semicolons.

Fagenblat, M., & Erdur, M. (Eds.). (2019). Levinas and analytic philosophy: Second-person normativity and the moral life. Routledge.

Schmid, H.-J. (Ed.). (2017). Entrenchment and the psychology of language learning: How we reorganize and adapt linguistic knowledge. American Psychological Association; De Gruyter Mouton.

Parenthetical citations: (Fagenblat & Erdur, 2019; Schmid, 2017)

Narrative citations: Fagenblat and Erdur (2019) and Schmid (2017)

Republished Book, Ebook, or Audiobook

  • If the new version has been edited and/or translated from the original, provide the name(s) of the editor(s) and/or translator(s) after the title in parentheses.
  • If an audiobook was released in a different year than the text version of the book, treat the audiobook as republished.

Jung, C. G. (1968). Man and his symbols. Dell Publishing Company. (Original work published 1964)

Rowling, J. K. (2015). Harry Potter and the sorcerer's stone (J. Dale, Narr.) [Audiobook]. Pottermore Publishing. (Original work published 1997)

Parenthetical citations: (Jung, 1968; Rowling, 2015)

Narrative citations: Jung (1968) and Rowling (2015)

One Volume of a Multivolume Work

  • If the volume has both series editors (or editors-in-chief) and volume editors, only the volume editors appear in the reference.
  • If you have an untitled volume, you would include the volume number after the edition of the book, within the same parentheses, and before the page numbers.
  • If the volume has its own title, include the volume number and title after the main title in italics.

Roth, W.-M., van Eijck, M., Reis, G., & Hsu, P.-L. (2008). Authentic science revisited: In praise of diversity, heterogeneity, hybridity (Vol. 14). Brill | Sense.

Travis, C. B., & White, J. W. (Eds.). (2018). APA handbook of the psychology of women: Vol. 1 History, theory, and battlegrounds. American Psychological Assocation.

Parenthetical citations: (Roth et al., 2008; Travis & White, 2018)

Narrative citations: Roth et al. (2008) and Travis and White (2018)

Diagnostic Manual

  • When the author and publisher are the same, omit the publisher from the source element.
  • It is common, but not required, to identify the title (and edition) of a diagnostic manual in the text. Group authors and manual titles can be abbreviated in the text but not in the reference list.
  • Generally, include a citation for a manual the first time it is mentioned in the text.
  • Do not repeat teh citation for subsequent general mention of a manual. Repeat a citation only when it directly supports a statement (e.g., quoting, paraphrasing).

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.).

Parenthetical citation with abbreviation included: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013)

Narrative citation with abbreviation included: American Psychiatric Association's (2013) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5)

Subsequent parenthetical citations: (American Psychiatric Association, 2013)

Subsequent narrative citations: American Psychiatric Association (2013)

Dictionary, Thesaurus, or Encyclopedia

  • An entry in a dictionary, thesaurus, or encyclopedia may have a group author or individual author.
  • When an online reference work is continuously updated and the versions are not archived, use "n.d." as the year of publication and include a retrieval date.
  • See an example of an archived entry on p. 324 of the manual.

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). dictionary. Retrieved January 7, 2020, from

E. N. Zalta (Ed.). (n.d.). The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. Stanford University. Retrieved January 6, 2020, from

Parenthetical citations: (Merriam-Webster, n.d.; Zalta, n.d.)

Narrative citations: Merriam-Webster (n.d.) and Zalta (n.d.)

Religious Work

King James Bible. (2017). King James Bible Online. (Original work published in 1769)

The Qur'an (M. A. S. Abdel Haleem, Trans.). (2004). Oxford University Press.

The Torah: The five books of Moses (3rd ed.). (2015). The Jewish Publication Society. (Original work published 1962)

Parenthetical citations: (King James Bible, 1769/2017; The Qur'an, 2004; The Torah, 1962/2015)

Narrative citations: King James Bible (1769/2017), The Qur'an (2004), and The Torah (1962/2015)

Classical Works

  • For ancient Greek or Roman works, include the copyright date of the version used in the date element and the date of the original (ancient) publication in parentheses at the end of the entry.
  • When the date of the original publication is approximate, use the abbreviation "ca." (which stands for "circa").
  • For other classic works, also include the original publication date in parentheses at the end of the entry.

Aristotle. (1994). On prophesying by dreams (J. I. Beare, Trans.). The Internet Classics Archive. (Original work published ca. 350 B.C.E.)

Parenthetical citation: (Aristotle, ca. 350 B.C.E./1994)

Narrative citation: Aristotle (ca. 350 B.C.E./1994)