Works that cannot be recovered by readers (i.e., works without a source element) are cited in the text as personal communications.
Personal communications may include:
Personal communications are not included in the reference list; they are cited in the text only.
Give the initial(s) and surname of the communicator, and provide as exact a date as possible.
(A. Sutton, personal communication, January 14, 2019)
If Traditional Knowledge or Oral Traditions of Indigenous Peoples can be recovered by readers (e.g., video, audio, interview transcript, book, article), cite it in the text and include a reference list entry in the correct format for that type of source.
If these types of sources are not recoverable by readers, provide as much detail in the in-text citation as is necessary to describe the content and to contextualize the origin of the information. If you spoke with an Indigenous person directly, follow the personal communication in-text citation with the person's full name, the nation or specific Indigenous group to which they belong, as well as their location and other relevant information, followed by "personal communication" and the date. No reference entry is included.
(Sarah Grant, Great Sioux Nation, lives in Yankton, SD, personal communication, May 8, 2004)
To learn more about citing these types of sources, see pp. 260-261 in the manual.