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APA Citations (7th ed.)

This guide will help you learn how to properly cite sources in APA style and how to avoid plagiarism.

Professional Paper Required Elements

Professional papers should always include:

  • A title page, which contains the paper title, author names and affiliations, and author note
  • Page headers with a running head and page numbers
  • An abstract
  • Text
  • reference list

Papers may also include:

  • Keywords
  • Footnotes
  • Tables and/or figures
  • Appendices and/or supplemental materials

Title Page

The Professional Title Page includes:

  • The title of the paper
  • Name of each author of the paper
  • Affiliation for each author
  • Author note
  • Running head
  • Page number

The title should summarize the main idea of the paper in a simple, concise manner. Include essential terms in the title to increase findability. The title should be in title case, bold, centered, and positioned in the upper half of the title page.

The author name should be written as first name, middle initial(s), and last name. Omit all professional titles (e.g., PhD, EdD, MD, MA, RN, MSW). The author names should follow the paper title on the title page. Include one blank double-spaced line between the paper title and the author names.

The author affiliation identifies where the author worked or studied when the research was conducted. Include a dual affiliation only if two institutions contributed substantial support to the study. Include no more than two affiliations per author. If an author's affiliation has changed, give current affiliation in the author note. See Table 2.2 (p. 34) in the manual to learn more about author affiliations.

The author note provides additional information and a point of contact for readers. First paragraph is where authors with an ORCID iD may include their identification number. If an author does not have an ORCID iD, omit the author. If no authors have an ORCID iD, omit the first paragraph. The second paragraph identifies any changes in author affiliations or death of an author. The third paragraph includes disclosures and acknowledgments, including study registration, data sharing, disclaimers or statements regarding conflicts of interest, and help or funding that supported the research. The fourth paragraph contains contact information for the corresponding author. The author note should be placed in the bottom half of the title page, blow the title, authors, and affiliations. Center "Author note" in bold above the paragraphs and indent the beginning of each paragraph. Learn more about author notes on pp. 35-37 of the manual.

The running head is an abbreviated version of the paper title that appears at the top of every page to identify it for readers. The running head should contain a maximum of 50 characters. The running head should be in the page header, flush left, in all-capital letters, across from the right-aligned page number.

The page number should be included in all papers, flush right, in the header on every page. The title page is page number 1.

Sample Professional Title Page