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APA Citations (7th ed.): Reports and Gray Literature

This guide will help you learn how to properly cite sources in APA style and how to avoid plagiarism.

Reports & Gray Literature

Reports, like journal articles, usually cover original research, but they may or may not be peer-reviewed. There are many kinds of reports, including:

  • Government reports
  • Technical reports
  • Research reports

Gray literature includes reports, but also:

  • Press releases
  • Codes of ethics
  • Grants
  • Policy briefs
  • Issue briefs

It is optional–but often helpful–to describe these types of gray literature in square brackets after the title.

When the publisher is the same as the author, omit the publisher from the source element.

Reports & Gray Literature Template

Report by a Government Agency or Other Organization

  • The names of parent agencies not present in the group author name appear in the source element as the publisher.
  • If multiple agencies authored a report together, join the names with an ampersand, using commas to separate the names of three or more agencies.

National Cancer Institute. (2014). Understanding breast changes: A health guide for women (NIH Publication No. 14-3536). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. https://www.cancer.gov/types/breast/breast-changes/understanding-breast-changes.pdf

Sexual Misconduct Response Centre. (2018-2019). 2018-2019 Annual Report. The Department of the National Defence, Government of Canada. https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/dnd-mdn/documents/reports/2019/smrc-2019-annual-report-en.pdf


Parenthetical citations: (National Cancer Institute, 2014; Sexual Misconduct Response Centre, 2018-2019)

Narrative citations: National Cancer Institute (2014) and the Sexual Misconduct Response Centre (2018-2019)

Report by Individual Authors at a Government Agency or Other Organization

Hunt, K. S., & Dumville, R. (2016). Recidivism among federal offenders: A comprehensive overview. United States Sentencing Commission. https://www.ussc.gov/sites/default/files/pdf/research-and-publications/research-publications/2016/recidivism_overview.pdf

O'Connor, S. (2017). Fentanyl: China's deadly export to the United States. U.S.–China Economic and Security Review Commission. https://www.uscc.gov/sites/default/files/Research/USCC%20Staff%20Report_Fentanyl-China’s%20Deadly%20Export%20to%20the%20United%20States020117.pdf


Parenthetical citations: (Hunt & Dumville, 2016; O'Connor, 2017)

Narrative citations: Hunt & Dumville (2016) and O'Connor (2017)

Report by a Government Agency, Published as Part of a Series

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2018). Australia's health 2018 (Australia's Health Series no. 16. AUS 221). https://www.aihw.gov.au/getmedia/7c42913d-295f-4bc9-9c24-4e44eff4a04a/aihw-aus-221.pdf.aspx?inline=true

Blackwell, D. L., Lucas, J. W., & Clarke, T. C. (2014). Summary health statistics for U.S. adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2012 (Vital and Health Statistics Series 10, Issue 260). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/series/sr_10/sr10_260.pdf


Parenthetical citations: (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2018; Blackwell et al., 2014)

Narrative citations: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2018) and Blackwell et al. (2014)

Report by a Task Force, Working Group, or Other Group

  • Capitalize the name of the task force or working group wherever it appears in the reference because it is a proper noun.

British Cardiovascular Society Working Group. (2016). British Cardiovascular Society Working Group report: Out-of-hours cardiovascular care: Management of cardiac emergencies and hospital in-patients. British Cardiovascular Society. http://www.bcs.com/documents/BCSOOHWP_Final_Report_05092016.pdf

U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. (2019). Ninth annual report to Congress on high-priority evidence gaps for clinical preventive services. https://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Name/ninth-annual-report-to-congress-on-high-priority-evidence-gaps-for-clinical-preventive-services


Parenthetical citations: (British Cardiovascular Working Group, 2016; U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, 2019)

Narrative citations: British Cardiovascular Working Group (2016) and U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (2019)

Annual Report

U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. (2017). Agency financial report: Fiscal year 2017. https://www.sec.gov/files/sec-2017-agency-financial-report.pdf


Parenthetical citation: (U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, 2017)

Narrative citation: U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (2017)

Code of Ethics

American Nurses Association. (2015). Code of ethics for nurses with interpretive statements. https://www.nursingworld.org/coe-view-only

American Psychological Association. (2017). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct (2002, amended effective June 1, 2010, and January 1, 2017). https://www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx


Parenthetical citations: (American Nurses Association, 2015; American Psychological Association, 2017)

Narrative citations: American Nurses Association (2015) and American Psychological Association (2017)

Press Release

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2020, January 2). FDA finalizes enforcement policy on unauthorized flavored cartridge-based e-cigarettes that appeal to children, including fruit and mint [Press release]. https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-finalizes-enforcement-policy-unauthorized-flavored-cartridge-based-e-cigarettes-appeal-children


Parenthetical citation: (U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 2020)

Narrative citation: U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2020)