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APA Citations (7th ed.): Visual Works

This guide will help you learn how to properly cite sources in APA style and how to avoid plagiarism.

Visual Media

Describe the visual work in square brackets--for example, "[Clip art]," "[Infographic]," "[Painting]," and so forth in the title element of the reference.

In the source element, provide the name and location of the museum for artwork, department and university name for materials found in archives, or the site from which a visual work was received.

If you want to reproduce an visual work rather than just cite it, you may need to seek permission from the copyright owner.

Audiovisual Template - Standalone

Audiovisual Template - Part of a Greater Whole

Artwork in a Museum or on a Museum Website

  • Use this format to cite all types of museum artwork, including paintings, sculptures, photographs, prints, drawings, and installations; always include a description of the medium or format in square brackets after the title.
  • For untitled art, include a description in square brackets in place of a title.

Solario, A. (1465–1524). Madonna of the green cushion [Painting]. The Louvre, Paris, France.

Whisler, J. M. (1878). Nocturne: The Thames at Battersea [Litograph]. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY, United States.*&offset=0&rpp=20&pos=13

Parenthetical citations: (Solario, 1465–1524; Whisler, 1878)

Narrative citations: Solario (1465–1524) and Whisler (1878)

Clip Art or Stock Image

  • Use this format to cite (but not reproduce) most clip art or stock images. To reproduce clip art or stock images, permission and/or a copyright attribution may be necessary in addition to the reference.
  • No citation, permission, or copyright attribution is necessary for clip art from programs like Microsoft Word or PowerPoint.

Altmann, G. [geralt]. (2019). Digitization transformation digital change data [Stock image]. Pixabay.

GDJ. (2018). Neural network deep learning prismatic [Clip art]. Openclipart.

Parenthetical citations: (Altmann, 2019; GDJ, 2018)

Narrative citations: Altmann (2019) and GDJ (2018)


  • Use this format to cite (but not reproduce) an infographic. To reproduce an infographic, permission and/or a copyright attribution may be necessary in addition to the reference.

Global Partnership for Education. (2019, January 24). What makes a great education? [Infographic].

Rossman, J., & Palmer, R. (2015). Sorting through our space junk [Infographic]. World Science Festival.

Parenthetical citations: (Global Partnership for Education, 2019; Rossman & Palmer, 2015)

Narrative citations: Global Partnership for Education (2019) and Rossman and Palmer (2015)


  • Because dynamically created maps (e.g., Google Maps) do not have a title, describe the map in square brackets.
  • Include a retrieval date.

Cable, D. (2013). The racial dot map [Map]. University of Virginia, Weldon Cooper Center for Public Service.

Google. (n.d.). [Google Maps directions for driving from La Paz, Bolivia, to Lima, Peru]. Retrieved February 16, 2019, from

Parenthetical citations: (Cable, 2013; Google, n.d.)

Narrative citations: Cable (2013) and Google (n.d.)


  • Use this format to cite (but not reproduce) photographs or other artwork not connected to a museum. To reproduce a photograph, permission and/or a copyright attribution may be necessary in addition to the reference.
  • The source is the name of the site from which the photograph was retrieved.
  • For an untitled photograph, include a description in square brackets in place of a title.

McCurry, S. (1985). Afghan girl [Photograph]. National Geographic.

Rinaldi, J. (2016). [Photograph series of a boy who finds his footing after abuse by those he trusted]. The Pulitzer Prizes.

Parenthetical citations: (McCurry, 1985; Rinaldi, 2016)

Narrative citations: McCurry (1985) and Rinaldi (2016)

PowerPoint Slides or Lecture Notes

  • If the slides come from a classroom website, learning management system (e.g., Moodle), or company intranet and you are writing for an audience with access to that resource, provide the name of the site and its URL.
  • For sites requiring login, use the login page URL.

Canan, E., & Vasilev, J. (2019, May 22). [Lecture notes on resource allocation]. Department of Management Control and Information Systems, University of Chile.

Schettler, H. (2019). Citing sources in presentations: APA style [PowerPoint slides]. SlideShare.

Smith, B. (2016). Increasing interaction: Integrating gaming in the classroom [PowerPoint slides]. Moodle.

Parenthetical citations: (Canan & Vasilev, 2019; Schettler, 2019; Smith, 2016)

Narrative citations: Canan & Vasilev (2019), Schettler (2019), and Smith (2016)