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MLA Citations (9th ed.)

This guide will help you format your paper and cite resources according to MLA citation style.

Endnotes and Footnotes

Endnotes are located at the end of a paper. Footnotes are located at the bottom of a page.

Because long explanatory notes can be distracting to readers, MLA recommends limited use of endnotes and footnotes; but, in some cases, note references may be preferred instead of parenthetical references.

MLA style does allow you to use endnotes or footnotes for bibliographic notes. These notes refer to other publications your readers may consult. Some examples are:

     1. See Johnson, especially chapters 1 and 2, for a particularly insightful analysis of this trend.
     2. Several other studies point to this same conclusion. See Smith and Hull 112-118, Craig 20-43, and Stevens 78-90.

MLA style also allows you to use explanatory notes. These notes are short pieces of additional information that does necessarily add to the purpose of the main text:

     3. In a 2008 interview, he stated his position even more clearly: "I am a writer, not a politician!" (Watson 80).