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Chicago Citations (17th ed.): A. Interviews and Personal Communications

This guide will help you use Chicago style for citations.

About Citing Other Sources

This guide is intended to cover only the Notes and Bibliography system for citing sources.

For each type of source in this guide, both the general form and a specific example will be provided. 

The following format will be used:

Full Note - use the first time that you cite a source.

Concise Note - use after the first time you cite a source.

Bibliography - use when you are compiling the Bibliography that appears at the end of your paper.

Information on citing and several of the examples were drawn from The Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.).

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the manual.

Interviews and Personal Communications (pp. 849-851)

Unpublished interviews and personal communications (conversations, emails, letters, etc.) are generally cited in a footnote only; they are rarely included in the bibliography.

General Format
Full Note:

1. Interviewee/Email Sender First Name and/or Initial Surname, Interview by Name of Interviewer, Place and Date of Interview.

Concise Note:

2. Surname, format.

Example 1
Full Note:

1. Andrew Macmillan (principal adviser, Investment Center Division, FAO), in discussion with the author, September 1998.

Concise Note:

2. Macmillan, discussion.

Example 2
Full Note:

1. Interview with health care worker, July 31, 2017.

Concise Note:

2. Health care worker, interview.

Example 3
Full Note:

1. Constance Conlon, email message to author, April 17, 2000.

Concise Note:

2. Conlon, email message.

Example 4

1. Zachary Hutchison, Facebook direct message to author, November 13, 2018.

Concise Note:

2. Hutchison, Facebook direct message.

Example 5
Full Note:

1. John Powell to Grapevine mailing list, April 23, 1998, no. 83,

Concise Note:

2. Powell, Grapevine mailing list post.

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Online Citation Creators

WARNING: Free online citation creators are not 100% correct. In fact, they are often wrong. It is much easier to write out the citation yourself than use these creators.

Please ask a librarian for assistance if you are having trouble with citations.