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MLA Citations (9th ed.)

This guide will help you format your paper and cite resources according to MLA citation style.

Location Basics

The Location element specifies a work's location and depends on the format of the work. For paginated print or similar fixed-format works (like PDFs) that are contained in another work, the location is the page range. (p. 187)

Soyinka, Wole. "Twice Bitten: The Fate of Africa's Culture Producers." PMLA, vol. 105, no. 1, Jan. 1990, pp. 110-20.

In rare cases, additional information may need to be included with the page numbers so that the work can be found. For example, for a print newspaper the section title is included with the page number. Include a section name only if it is needed to locate the work. (p. 187)

Akabas, Shoshana. Letter. The New York Times, 5 Apr. 2020, Sunday Review Sec., p. 8.

Print Materials

In print sources, a page number (preceded by p.or a range of page numbers (preceded by pp.) specifies the location of a text in a container such as a book anthology or a periodical. 

Do not include page numbers for a paginated work, like a novel, that is not contained in another work. (p. 188)

Here are some examples:

Adichie, Chimamanda Ngozi. "On Monday of Last Week." The Thing around Your Neck, Alfred A. Knopf, 2009, pp. 74-94.

Deresiewicz, William. "The Death of the Artist--and the Birth of the Creative Entrepreneur." The Atlantic, Jan.-Feb. 2015, pp. 92-97.

Online Works

The location of an online work is commonly indicated by its URL, or web address. 

Here are some examples:

Deresiewicz, William. "The Death of the Artist--and the Birth of the Creative Entrepreneur." The Atlantic, 28 Dec. 2014,

Hollmichel, Steafanie. "The Reading Brain: Differences between Digital and Print." So Many Books, 25 Apr. 2013,

Visualizing Emancipation. Directed by Scott Nesbit and Edward L. Ayers,

The publisher of a work on the web can change its URL at any time. If your source offers URLs that it says are stable (sometimes called permalinks), use them in your entry.

Some publishers assign DOIs, or digital object identifiers, to their online publications. A DOI remains attached to a source even if the URL changes. When possible, citing a DOI is preferable to citing a URL. 

Here is an example:

Chan, Evans. "Postmodernism and Hong Kong Cinema." Postmodern Culture, vol. 10, no. 3, May 2000. Project Muse, doi:10.1353/pmc.2000.0021.